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How to install software

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misko_2083:
Installing software with synaptic package manager:
1. Open synaptic package manager
With menu (Install/Remove Software) or with this terminal command:

--- Code: ---sudo synaptic
--- End code ---
2. Click Reload to  to download the latest package lists from the repositories.
3. Search for software in the search box.
4. Right click each software you want to install and mark them for installation.This will mark additional dependencies automatically.
5. After marking for installation, click on Apply to start downloading an installing all the marked applications.

PPA method:
1. Search for PPA's with google. Type something like "ppa for app"
For example: ppa for qmplay2, ppa for firefox
2.  Open the terminal and add PPA address

--- Code: ---sudo add-apt-repository ppa:whatever_the_address_ is
--- End code ---
3. Update package lists from the repository.

--- Code: ---sudo apt-get update
--- End code ---
4. Install application with synaptic or use the terminal method.
Make sure those PPA's are trusted. For example if some sites recomend them. You don't want to install software from an untrusted source.
Also make sure to add only stable version of a PPA.
Another way to add PPA's is with GUI tool, enter:

--- Code: ---software-properties-gtk --open-tab=1
--- End code ---
Then click on Add and type in the PPA.
 
Installing applications with Terminal:
1. Open the terminal and type in

--- Code: ---sudo apt-get update
--- End code ---
2. Install the application, instead of 'name' type in application's package name

--- Code: ---sudo apt-get install name
--- End code ---
Optional: Instead of apt-get you can use aptitude (sudo aptitude install name)
If you know a certain aplication's name but you don't know the exact package name of that application so you can install it,
you can find the exact package name with apt-cache or aptitude:

apt-cache
The apt-cache command line tool is used for searching apt software package cache.
If you haven't done this allready, open your terminal and type:

--- Code: ---sudo apt-get update
--- End code ---
To list all the available packages, type this command:

--- Code: ---apt-cache pkgnames
--- End code ---
You can pipe the output of this command to less or more

--- Code: ---apt-cache pkgnames | less
--- End code ---

--- Code: ---apt-cache pkgnames | more
--- End code ---
Less allows you to scroll from within even a non-scrollable terminal, more prints a page then you press enter to bring up every line after that.
To find out the package name and  it's description, use the "search" flag.
For example, you can search for gnome-mines.

--- Code: ---apt-cache search gnome-mines
--- End code ---
This is the output:
gnome-mines - popular minesweeper puzzle game for GNOME
gnomine - popular minesweeper puzzle game for GNOME (transitional package)
To display all packages starting with word "fire" ( you can use whatever) type:

--- Code: ---apt-cache pkgnames fire
...
firefox
firefox-locale-zh-hant
firefox-locale-csb
firefox-locale-zu
firefox-mozsymbols
firebird2.5-super-dbg
firedns
firebird2.5-common
firehol
firefox-globalmenu
firefox-locale-ast
firebird2.5-examples

--- End code ---
If you want to display package version number, check sums, size, installed size, category... use show:

--- Code: ---apt-cache show firefox
--- End code ---
To check dependencies for specific packages use showpkg.

--- Code: ---apt-cache showpkg firefox
--- End code ---
The stats sub command will display overall statistics about the cache.

--- Code: ---apt-cache stats
--- End code ---

aptitude
You can use ncurses interface (menu-like command line interface) or search through cli (command line interface).
To run aptitude with ncurses interface:

--- Code: ---aptitude
--- End code ---

If you don't know what you are doing don't use aptitude with NCURSES interface!
Seaching with CLI method:
This lists all avaiable packages.

--- Code: ---aptitude search ~T | less
--- End code ---
p -package is not installed
c -the package was deleted but its configuration files remain on the system
i -installed packages
v -virtual packages
A -package was automatically installed
This lists installed packages:

--- Code: ---aptitude search ~i | less
--- End code ---
This matches any package which is purely virtual: that is, its name is provided by a package or mentioned in a dependency, but no package of that name exists.

--- Code: ---aptitude search ~v | less
--- End code ---
This  matches any installed package which can be upgraded

--- Code: ---aptitude search ~U | less
--- End code ---
Lists all firefox packages:

--- Code: ---aptitude search firefox | less
--- End code ---
This will list all packages containing word "fire":

--- Code: ---aptitude search fire | less
--- End code ---
This will list all installed packages containing word "fire":

--- Code: ---aptitude search ~ifire | less
--- End code ---
To display detailed information about package use show flag:

--- Code: ---aptitude show firefox
--- End code ---

Installing .deb packages:
If you downloaded .deb package from the internet there are two methods available to install software.
1. Find the .deb package double click .on it,(or type gdebi-gtk in the terminal and  open the file with gdebi package manager) and click install.
2. Open the terminal,

--- Code: ---cd path_to_the_directory_that_contains_the_.deb_file
--- End code ---
Example: If you saved it in /home/user/Downloads type cd /home/user/Downloads
This will list all .deb files in the directory, it will help you with the next step because you will need .deb file's name.

--- Code: ---ls *.deb
--- End code ---
Install it with this, just change "filename" to the deb package name.

--- Code: --- sudo dpkg -i filename.deb
--- End code ---

Installing .run files

--- Code: ---cd path_to_the_directory_that_contains_the_.run_file
--- End code ---

--- Code: ---chmod +x filename.run
--- End code ---

--- Code: ---./filename.run
--- End code ---
or if it needs root permision

--- Code: ---sudo ./filename.run
--- End code ---

Installing .sh files

--- Code: ---cd path_to_the_directory_that_contains_the_.sh_file
--- End code ---

--- Code: ---chmod +x filename.sh 
--- End code ---

--- Code: ---./filename.sh
--- End code ---
if it needs root permission

--- Code: ---sudo ./filename.sh
--- End code ---

Installing from source code
If you downloaded .tar .tar.bz tar.bz2 or even .zip archive from the internet these archives contain source code,
and you will have to compile that source code in order to install that software.
First install build-essential

--- Code: ---sudo apt-get update
--- End code ---

--- Code: ---sudo apt-get install build-essential
--- End code ---
1. Navigate to the directory where you downloaded archive and extract the archive

--- Code: ---cd path_to_the_archive
--- End code ---
Use this command to extract a .tar.gz file:
   
--- Code: ---tar -xzvf filename.tar.gz
--- End code ---
Or use this command to extract a .tar.bz2 file:
   
--- Code: ---tar -xjvf filename.tar.bz2
--- End code ---
Instead of extracting the archive with the Terminal, you can open the directory with file manager and use Xarchiver or any other application to do this.
2. Enter the extracted directory, it will be the same as the archive filename.

--- Code: ---cd filename
--- End code ---
3. Once you’re in the extracted directory run:

--- Code: ---./configure
--- End code ---
If it fails, it will tell you to install the dependencies. Install them:

--- Code: ---sudo apt-get install whatever_it_tells_you
--- End code ---
Note that some applications may not use ./configure. Check the “README” or “INSTALL” file in the application’s extracted folder for more specific instructions.
Repeat ./configure, and if it fails again install dependencies, and so on untill ./configure completes successfully.
4. Once ./configure completes successfully, you’re ready to compile.
Compile:

--- Code: ---make
--- End code ---
After this command finishes, the program is successfully compiled.
5.  Use this command to install it to your system:

--- Code: ---sudo make install
--- End code ---
6. Note: Programs you install this way won’t be automatically updated even if they contain security vulnerabilities.
it’s a good idea to stick with distribution’s official packages or the ppa.

Scott:
Hi Misko_2083,

This is a fantastic tutorial. Thank you very much for the hard work!

misko_2083:

--- Quote from: Scott(0) on August 10, 2014, 10:49:18 AM ---Hi Misko_2083,

This is a fantastic tutorial. Thank you very much for the hard work!

--- End quote ---
Hi Scott(0),
I'm glad someone appreciates. :)

rijnsma:
Great overview!  ;)

Jerry:
Wo misko_2083!!! Your a machine :) Freakin awesome, thank you and Stickied.

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